Heatmap Representations of Global IPv4 Address Space

The heatmaps generated are using the "Hilbert Curve" and represent the complete IPv4 address space. For more information on the IPv4 heatmap and its generation please visit IPv4 Heatmaps Software.

All heatmaps displayed below have a granularity of /24 per pixel. Therefore prefixes more specific than /24 are not included in the Internet view. However, heatmaps of each /8 can be viewed individually at /32 granularity, using the "zoom" capability provided here; to zoom in simply click on any /8 or select the appropriate space in the drop-down box underneath the heatmap.

The validation state of more specific announcements overwrites that of less specific announcements. This means, for example, that within an "Invalid" block of size /8, any "Valid" /9+ block(s) would overdraw the red painted /8 space with green colored subspace corresponding to the valid /9+ block(s).

In case a prefix is announced multiple times, each time from a different origin, then the prefix origin announcements with the validation state "valid" are drawn first in green followed by the prefixes with the validation state "invalid" in red. This will result in a "red" covering of the space.

Heatmap Representation of Global BGP Prefix/Origin Validation including Global ROA Coverage

The IPv4 Heatmap below depicts the validation state of all observed IPv4 prefixes including the IPv4 address space not observed in the BGP4 update trace data but covered by one or more ROAs. The later space is colored in blue.

Legend:
  • Black space represents IPv4 address space not observed in the BGP4 update trace data and also not covered by any ROAs.
  • Blue space represents IPv4 address space that is not observed in the BGP4 update trace data but is covered by one or more ROAs.
  • Yellow space represents address space with validation result "Not Found"
  • Green space represents address space with validation result "Valid"
  • Red space represents address space with validation result "Invalid".

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Select IPv4 Address Space to display in the IPv4 Heatmap above:


Heatmap Representation of Global ROA Coverage

The IPv4 Heatmap below depicts (in blue) all IPv4 prefixes that are declared in ROAs. The rest of the IPv4 address space is depicted in black in this Heatmap.

Legend:
  • Black space represents IPv4 address space not covered by any ROAs.
  • Blue space represents IPv4 address space that is covered by one or more ROAs.

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Heatmap Representation of Global RPKI Hierarchy

The heatmap below depicts various levels of resource certificate allocation (path) depths within the global RPKI hierarchy. We overwrite RPKI resources higher in the tree, with blocks lower in the tree such that the resulting image shows the depth of the leaves of the RPKI tree for each block. Please see the RPKI Repository Analysis page for the distribution of RPKI certificate path depths for each RIR.

Legend:
  • Gray space represents unallocated reserved space by the IANA (i.e., reserved/multicast/future use)
  • Black space represents allocated space by the IANA, but not in the RPKI (e.g., LEGACY space)
  • Red space represents Level 1 (root certificates) in the RPKI hierarchy
  • Yellow space represents Level 2 (of certificate path depths) in the RPKI hierarchy
  • Green space represents Level 3 in the RPKI hierarchy
  • Blue space represents Level 4 in the RPKI hierarchy
  • Purple space represents Level 5 in the RPKI hierarchy
  • Milk Green space represents Level 6 in the RPKI hierarchy
  • Blaze Orange space represents Level 7 in the RPKI hierarchy
  • Brown space represents Level 8 in the RPKI hierarchy
  • Light PinkBlaze Orange space represents Level 9 in the RPKI hierarchy

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